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The increasing development of mobile robots (terrestrial, underwater, aerial, space), industrial robots and humanoid robots show that robots will be part of our daily lives in the future and that the rise of artificial intelligence, especially machine learning and deep learning will profoundly change our way of life. A lot of examples show this rise in the use of artificial intelligence such as driverless cars that use machine learning algorithms, Deep Blue that defeated world chess champion, IBM Watson who won a televised game by answering correctly to most questions and AlphaGo, the deep learning developed by Google DeepMind that defeated the world's best Go player.
Big Data designates an enormous volume of data that requires processing with algorithms and new tools. Data Science consists of collecting, decrypting and analyzing heterogeneous data in order to get useful information. It helps decision-making by making them easier to read. Awareness of the potential of data science by large companies has led to the emergence of datascientists who are the people in charge of retrieving, storing, organizing and processing this mass of information in order to get a high value. Data Science finds many applications such as recommendation systems, image and voice recognition, financial risk management, anti-fraud and money-laundering, cyber security, energy efficiency, and management of connected objects.
Virtual reality creates an immersion of the user in a 3D virtual world in which he can move and interact while augmented reality is to use the real world to display 2D or 3D information such as images, numbers and texts with which the user can also interact. Progress in virtual reality and augmented reality have made it possible to democratize their use with the release of many virtual reality headsets such as HTC Vive, Oculus Rift, Samsung Gear VR, and the augmented reality headset Microsoft Hololens. Virtual reality and augmented reality find several applications such as entertainment, video games, medical training, aeronautics, railway maintenance, petrochemical or nuclear.
The automotive industry is undergoing a major change with the advent of electrification, autonomous driving and connectivity. These three factors oblige automotive manufacturers and automotive suppliers to rethink the operation of the vehicles of the future and their use. The arrival of autonomous and connected electric cars will change our habits and upset the transport sector. Many automotive manufacturers, such as Renault, PSA and BMW, and high-tech companies (Google, Microsoft, Baidu, etc.) have therefore embarked on autonomous driving technologies and developed an autonomous vehicle. The next revolution in the automotive sector is therefore the autonomous car capable of driving on the road without the intervention of a driver.
The emergence of new aircraft manufacturers, the new major aeronautical programs and the integration of digital technologies show that the aeronautics sector remains as dynamic as ever. Aircraft manufacturers such as Airbus, Boeing, Comac, Bombardier, Embraer and Sukoi are adopting different strategies to build the future of aeronautics, and aircraft engine manufacturers such as Safran, Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney and General Electric compete for the best aircraft engine. Drones have also become a new trend in aeronautics, and increasingly used in the civilian field such as industry, agriculture, security and prevention, urban logistics, art and culture.
Rockets, space shuttles, satellites, space telescopes, sending astronauts to the moon, conquering Mars, exploring the solar system, observing the universe and the International Space Station, the aerospace industry has experienced many changes and has faced many challenges. Advances in aerospace have made it possible to launch several rockets per month such as the Falcon 9, Ariane, Vega and many others. Traditional space agencies such as NASA, ESA and Ariane Espace now see new competitors arriving like, for example, SpaceX with its reusable rockets. Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic are racing to become the first commercial enterprise in the space tourism industry.
Blockchain is a technology that combines cryptography and decentralized peer-to-peer exchange and is the next revolution in the Internet of transactions and will revolutionize the digital economy. Blockchain is a database that is responsible for managing a list of records that is certified and protected against forgery or modification by storage nodes. It is a technology at the forefront of innovation that is of great interest to banks and Fintech thanks to the security and complete history of the financial transactions that the Blockchain provides. The bitcoin, the famous crypto-money is also based on the blockchain. The blockchain is not only used in finance, it can also be used for tracking a patient's medical history, intellectual property management, and real estate transactions.
Embedded systems are microprocessor-based electronic and computer systems that play an important role in our daily lives and are present in many sectors such as aeronautics, automotive, electronics, multimedia and the medical field. These real-time and autonomous systems are dedicated to a specific task and have a limited size and limited energy consumption. These embedded systems can be on-board computers, motion detectors, radars, mobile phones, satellites, lifts, printers, ABS braking systems and many other things. These systems must also ensure the confidentiality of the data used, in particular for systems used in the service of health.
The connected Internet of Things represents the exchange of information and data from real-world devices with the Internet. People around the world connect to the Internet to find information, interact with their counterparts and work, but they are not the only consumers of the Internet, objects also use it. Many everyday objects connect to the cloud to form the Internet of Things. The Internet of Things is growing rapidly. In the future, it could include between 30 and 75 billion objects in 2020: connected bracelets, toys, photo frames, medical devices, earthquake sensors and aircraft. The potential of the Internet of Things is almost unlimited, thanks to this new technology, some products can automatically provide maintenance reports and self-diagnosis.